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Research overview

Our goal is to develop next-generation human-machine interfaces that offer human-like interactive capabilities. To this end, we research fundamental computational methods as well as ambient and on-body systems to sense, model, and analyse everyday non-verbal human behavior and cognition.

Our research towards this goal spans five main areas: Cognition-aware Computing, Social Signal Processing, Multimodal Interaction, Attentive User Interfaces, and Usable Security and Privacy.

Please find selected key publications for each area below.


Cognition-aware Computing

  1. Moment-to-Moment Detection of Internal Thought during Video Viewing from Eye Vergence Behavior

    Moment-to-Moment Detection of Internal Thought during Video Viewing from Eye Vergence Behavior

    Michael Xuelin Huang, Jiajia Li, Grace Ngai, Hong Va Leong, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM Multimedia (MM), pp. 1–9, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Eye movements during everyday behavior predict personality traits

    Eye movements during everyday behavior predict personality traits

    Sabrina Hoppe, Tobias Loetscher, Stephanie Morey, Andreas Bulling

    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, pp. 105:1-105:8, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Predicting the Category and Attributes of Visual Search Targets Using Deep Gaze Pooling

    Predicting the Category and Attributes of Visual Search Targets Using Deep Gaze Pooling

    Hosnieh Sattar, Andreas Bulling, Mario Fritz

    Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCVW), pp. 2740-2748, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Prediction of Search Targets From Fixations in Open-world Settings

    Prediction of Search Targets From Fixations in Open-world Settings

    Hosnieh Sattar, Sabine Müller, Mario Fritz, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 981-990, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Cognition-Aware Computing

    Cognition-Aware Computing

    Andreas Bulling, Thorsten O. Zander

    IEEE Pervasive Computing, 13(3), pp. 80-83, 2014.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. I know what you are reading – Recognition of document types using mobile eye tracking

    I know what you are reading – Recognition of document types using mobile eye tracking

    Kai Kunze, Andreas Bulling, Yuzuko Utsumi, Shiga Yuki, Koichi Kise

    Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC), pp. 113-116, 2013.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Recognition of Visual Memory Recall Processes Using Eye Movement Analysis

    Recognition of Visual Memory Recall Processes Using Eye Movement Analysis

    Andreas Bulling, Daniel Roggen

    Proc. ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), pp. 455-464, 2011.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. Recognition of Hearing Needs From Body and Eye Movements to Improve Hearing Instruments

    Recognition of Hearing Needs From Body and Eye Movements to Improve Hearing Instruments

    Bernd Tessendorf, Andreas Bulling, Daniel Roggen, Thomas Stiefmeier, Manuela Feilner, Peter Derleth, Gerhard Tröster

    Proc. International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive), pp. 314-331, 2011.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project


Social Signal Processing

  1. Emergent Leadership Detection Across Datasets

    Emergent Leadership Detection Across Datasets

    Philipp Müller, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI), pp. 274-278, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Detecting Low Rapport During Natural Interactions in Small Groups from Non-Verbal Behavior

    Detecting Low Rapport During Natural Interactions in Small Groups from Non-Verbal Behavior

    Philipp Müller, Michael Xuelin Huang, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), pp. 153-164, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. Robust Eye Contact Detection in Natural Multi-Person Interactions Using Gaze and Speaking Behaviour

    Robust Eye Contact Detection in Natural Multi-Person Interactions Using Gaze and Speaking Behaviour

    Philipp Müller, Michael Xuelin Huang, Xucong Zhang, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 31:1-31:10, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Discovery of Everyday Human Activities From Long-term Visual Behaviour Using Topic Models

    Discovery of Everyday Human Activities From Long-term Visual Behaviour Using Topic Models

    Julian Steil, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), pp. 75-85, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. Emotion recognition from embedded bodily expressions and speech during dyadic interactions

    Emotion recognition from embedded bodily expressions and speech during dyadic interactions

    Philipp Müller, Sikandar Amin, Prateek Verma, Mykhaylo Andriluka, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), pp. 663-669, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. The Royal Corgi: Exploring Social Gaze Interaction for Immersive Gameplay

    The Royal Corgi: Exploring Social Gaze Interaction for Immersive Gameplay

    Mélodie Vidal, Remi Bismuth, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 115-124, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. A Tutorial on Human Activity Recognition Using Body-worn Inertial Sensors

    A Tutorial on Human Activity Recognition Using Body-worn Inertial Sensors

    Andreas Bulling, Ulf Blanke, Bernt Schiele

    ACM Computing Surveys, 46(3), pp. 33:1-33:33, 2014.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. EyeContext: Recognition of High-level Contextual Cues from Human Visual Behaviour

    EyeContext: Recognition of High-level Contextual Cues from Human Visual Behaviour

    Andreas Bulling, Christian Weichel, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 305-308, 2013.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. AutoBAP: Automatic Coding of Body Action and Posture Units from Wearable Sensors

    AutoBAP: Automatic Coding of Body Action and Posture Units from Wearable Sensors

    Eduardo Velloso, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), pp. 135-140, 2013.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. MotionMA: Motion Modelling and Analysis by Demonstration

    MotionMA: Motion Modelling and Analysis by Demonstration

    Eduardo Velloso, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 1309-1318, 2013.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Multimodal Recognition of Reading Activity in Transit Using Body-Worn Sensors

    Multimodal Recognition of Reading Activity in Transit Using Body-Worn Sensors

    Andreas Bulling, Jamie A. Ward, Hans Gellersen

    ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP), 9(1), pp. 2:1–2:21, 2012.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Eye Movement Analysis for Activity Recognition Using Electrooculography

    Eye Movement Analysis for Activity Recognition Using Electrooculography

    Andreas Bulling, Jamie A. Ward, Hans Gellersen, Gerhard Tröster

    IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI), 33(4), pp. 741-753, 2011.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project


Multimodal Interaction

  1. Towards High-Frequency SSVEP-Based Target Discrimination with an Extended Alphanumeric Keyboard

    Towards High-Frequency SSVEP-Based Target Discrimination with an Extended Alphanumeric Keyboard

    Sahar Abdelnabi, Michael Xuelin Huang, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), pp. 1-6, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. A Design Space for Gaze Interaction on Head-mounted Displays

    A Design Space for Gaze Interaction on Head-mounted Displays

    Teresa Hirzle, Jan Gugenheimer, Florian Geiselhart, Andreas Bulling, Enrico Rukzio

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 1–12, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Which one is me? Identifying Oneself on Public Displays

    Which one is me? Identifying Oneself on Public Displays

    Mohamed Khamis, Christian Becker, Andreas Bulling, Florian Alt

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 287:1-287:12, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper honourable mention award

  2. The Past, Present, and Future of Gaze-enabled Handheld Mobile Devices: Survey and Lessons Learned

    The Past, Present, and Future of Gaze-enabled Handheld Mobile Devices: Survey and Lessons Learned

    Mohamed Khamis, Florian Alt, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI), pp. 38:1–38:17, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper honourable mention award

  1. Look together: using gaze for assisting co-located collaborative search

    Look together: using gaze for assisting co-located collaborative search

    Yanxia Zhang, Ken Pfeuffer, Ming Ki Chong, Jason Alexander, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 21(1), pp. 173-186, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. EyePACT: Eye-Based Parallax Correction on Touch-Enabled Interactive Displays

    EyePACT: Eye-Based Parallax Correction on Touch-Enabled Interactive Displays

    Mohamed Khamis, Daniel Buschek, Tobias Thieron, Florian Alt, Andreas Bulling

    Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies (IMWUT), 1(4), pp. 146:1-146:18, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. InvisibleEye: Mobile Eye Tracking Using Multiple Low-Resolution Cameras and Learning-Based Gaze Estimation

    InvisibleEye: Mobile Eye Tracking Using Multiple Low-Resolution Cameras and Learning-Based Gaze Estimation

    Marc Tonsen, Julian Steil, Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies (IMWUT), 1(3), pp. 106:1-106:21, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Distinguished paper award

  1. EyeScout: Active Eye Tracking for Position and Movement Independent Gaze Interaction with Large Public Displays

    EyeScout: Active Eye Tracking for Position and Movement Independent Gaze Interaction with Large Public Displays

    Mohamed Khamis, Axel Hoesl, Alexander Klimczak, Martin Reiss, Florian Alt, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 155-166, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Concept for Using Eye Tracking in a Head-mounted Display to Adapt Rendering to the User’s Current Visual Field

    Concept for Using Eye Tracking in a Head-mounted Display to Adapt Rendering to the User’s Current Visual Field

    Daniel Pohl, Xucong Zhang, Andreas Bulling, Oliver Grau

    Proc. of the 22nd ACM Conference on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST), pp. 323-324, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. Combining Eye Tracking with Optimizations for Lens Astigmatism in Modern Wide-Angle HMDs

    Combining Eye Tracking with Optimizations for Lens Astigmatism in Modern Wide-Angle HMDs

    Daniel Pohl, Xucong Zhang, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), pp. 269-270, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. TextPursuits: Using Text for Pursuits-Based Interaction and Calibration on Public Displays

    TextPursuits: Using Text for Pursuits-Based Interaction and Calibration on Public Displays

    Mohamed Khamis, Ozan Saltuk, Alina Hang, Katharina Stolz, Andreas Bulling, Florian Alt

    Proc. ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), pp. 274-285, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Eye tracking for public displays in the wild

    Eye tracking for public displays in the wild

    Yanxia Zhang, Ming Ki Chong, Jörg Müller, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Springer Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 19(5), pp. 967-981, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. The Feet in HCI: A Survey of Foot-Based Interaction

    The Feet in HCI: A Survey of Foot-Based Interaction

    Eduardo Velloso, Dominik Schmidt, Jayson Alexander, Hans Gellersen, Andreas Bulling

    ACM Computing Surveys, 48(2), 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Orbits: Enabling Gaze Interaction in Smart Watches using Moving Targets

    Orbits: Enabling Gaze Interaction in Smart Watches using Moving Targets

    Augusto Esteves, Eduardo Velloso, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 457-466, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper award

  2. GravitySpot: Guiding Users in Front of Public Displays Using On-Screen Visual Cues

    GravitySpot: Guiding Users in Front of Public Displays Using On-Screen Visual Cues

    Florian Alt, Andreas Bulling, Gino Gravanis, Daniel Buschek

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 47-56, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. Gaze+RST: Integrating Gaze and Multitouch for Remote Rotate-Scale-Translate Tasks

    Gaze+RST: Integrating Gaze and Multitouch for Remote Rotate-Scale-Translate Tasks

    Jayson Turner, Jason Alexander, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 4179-4188, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Pupil: an open source platform for pervasive eye tracking and mobile gaze-based interaction

    Pupil: an open source platform for pervasive eye tracking and mobile gaze-based interaction

    Moritz Kassner, William Patera, Andreas Bulling

    Adj. Proc. ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), pp. 1151-1160, 2014.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. GazeHorizon: Enabling Passers-by to Interact with Public Displays by Gaze

    GazeHorizon: Enabling Passers-by to Interact with Public Displays by Gaze

    Yanxia Zhang, Hans Jörg Müller, Ming Ki Chong, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), pp. 559-563, 2014.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Pursuits: Spontaneous Interaction with Displays based on Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement and Moving Targets

    Pursuits: Spontaneous Interaction with Displays based on Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement and Moving Targets

    Mélodie Vidal, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), pp. 439-448, 2013.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. Pursuit Calibration: Making Gaze Calibration Less Tedious and More Flexible

    Pursuit Calibration: Making Gaze Calibration Less Tedious and More Flexible

    Ken Pfeuffer, Mélodie Vidal, Jayson Turner, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 261-270, 2013.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. SideWays: A Gaze Interface for Spontaneous Interaction with Situated Displays

    SideWays: A Gaze Interface for Spontaneous Interaction with Situated Displays

    Yanxia Zhang, Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 851-860, 2013.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Toward Mobile Eye-Based Human-Computer Interaction

    Toward Mobile Eye-Based Human-Computer Interaction

    Andreas Bulling, Hans Gellersen

    IEEE Pervasive Computing, 9(4), pp. 8-12, 2010.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Wearable EOG goggles: Seamless sensing and context-awareness in everyday environments

    Wearable EOG goggles: Seamless sensing and context-awareness in everyday environments

    Andreas Bulling, Daniel Roggen, Gerhard Tröster

    Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, 1(2), pp. 157-171, 2009.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project


Attentive User Interfaces

  1. MPIIGaze: Real-World Dataset and Deep Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation

    MPIIGaze: Real-World Dataset and Deep Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation

    Xucong Zhang, Yusuke Sugano, Mario Fritz, Andreas Bulling

    IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI), 41(1), pp. 162-175, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Evaluation of Appearance-Based Methods and Implications for Gaze-Based Applications

    Evaluation of Appearance-Based Methods and Implications for Gaze-Based Applications

    Xucong Zhang, Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 1–13, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. GazeDirector: Fully Articulated Eye Gaze Redirection in Video

    GazeDirector: Fully Articulated Eye Gaze Redirection in Video

    Erroll Wood, Tadas Baltrušaitis, Louis-Philippe Morency, Peter Robinson, Andreas Bulling

    Computer Graphics Forum (CGF), 37(2), pp. 217-225, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper honourable mention award

  1. Training Person-Specific Gaze Estimators from Interactions with Multiple Devices

    Training Person-Specific Gaze Estimators from Interactions with Multiple Devices

    Xucong Zhang, Michael Xuelin Huang, Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 624:1-624:12, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. Revisiting Data Normalization for Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation

    Revisiting Data Normalization for Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation

    Xucong Zhang, Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 12:1-12:9, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. Forecasting User Attention During Everyday Mobile Interactions Using Device-Integrated and Wearable Sensors

    Forecasting User Attention During Everyday Mobile Interactions Using Device-Integrated and Wearable Sensors

    Julian Steil, Philipp Müller, Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI), pp. 1:1–1:13, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper award

  4. Error-Aware Gaze-Based Interfaces for Robust Mobile Gaze Interaction

    Error-Aware Gaze-Based Interfaces for Robust Mobile Gaze Interaction

    Michael Barz, Florian Daiber, Daniel Sonntag, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 24:1-24:10, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper award

  5. Understanding Face and Eye Visibility in Front-Facing Cameras of Smartphones used in the Wild

    Understanding Face and Eye Visibility in Front-Facing Cameras of Smartphones used in the Wild

    Mohamed Khamis, Anita Baier, Niels Henze, Florian Alt, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 280:1-280:12, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. It’s Written All Over Your Face: Full-Face Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation

    It’s Written All Over Your Face: Full-Face Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation

    Xucong Zhang, Yusuke Sugano, Mario Fritz, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), pp. 2299-2308, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. Everyday Eye Contact Detection Using Unsupervised Gaze Target Discovery

    Everyday Eye Contact Detection Using Unsupervised Gaze Target Discovery

    Xucong Zhang, Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 193-203, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper honourable mention award

  1. Pervasive Attentive User Interfaces

    Pervasive Attentive User Interfaces

    Andreas Bulling

    IEEE Computer, 49(1), pp. 94-98, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Learning an appearance-based gaze estimator from one million synthesised images

    Learning an appearance-based gaze estimator from one million synthesised images

    Erroll Wood, Tadas Baltrušaitis, Louis-Philippe Morency, Peter Robinson, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 131–138, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Emerging investigator award

  2. A 3D Morphable Eye Region Model for Gaze Estimation

    A 3D Morphable Eye Region Model for Gaze Estimation

    Erroll Wood, Tadas Baltrušaitis, Louis-Philippe Morency, Peter Robinson, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), pp. 297-313, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. Spatio-Temporal Modeling and Prediction of Visual Attention in Graphical User Interfaces

    Spatio-Temporal Modeling and Prediction of Visual Attention in Graphical User Interfaces

    Pingmei Xu, Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 3299-3310, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper honourable mention award

  4. AggreGaze: Collective Estimation of Audience Attention on Public Displays

    AggreGaze: Collective Estimation of Audience Attention on Public Displays

    Yusuke Sugano, Xucong Zhang, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 821-831, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper honourable mention award

  1. Appearance-based Gaze Estimation in the Wild

    Appearance-based Gaze Estimation in the Wild

    Xucong Zhang, Yusuke Sugano, Mario Fritz, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 4511-4520, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. GazeProjector: Accurate Gaze Estimation and Seamless Gaze Interaction Across Multiple Displays

    GazeProjector: Accurate Gaze Estimation and Seamless Gaze Interaction Across Multiple Displays

    Christian Lander, Sven Gehring, Antonio Krüger, Sebastian Boring, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 395-404, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  3. Self-Calibrating Head-Mounted Eye Trackers Using Egocentric Visual Saliency

    Self-Calibrating Head-Mounted Eye Trackers Using Egocentric Visual Saliency

    Yusuke Sugano, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 363-372, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  4. Rendering of Eyes for Eye-Shape Registration and Gaze Estimation

    Rendering of Eyes for Eye-Shape Registration and Gaze Estimation

    Erroll Wood, Tadas Baltrušaitis, Xucong Zhang, Yusuke Sugano, Peter Robinson, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), pp. 3756-3764, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. EyeTab: Model-based gaze estimation on unmodified tablet computers

    EyeTab: Model-based gaze estimation on unmodified tablet computers

    Erroll Wood, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 207-210, 2014.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Eye Tracking and Eye-Based Human-Computer Interaction

    Eye Tracking and Eye-Based Human-Computer Interaction

    Päivi Majaranta, Andreas Bulling

    Stephen H. Fairclough, Kiel Gilleade (Eds.): Advances in Physiological Computing, Springer Publishing London, pp. 39-65, 2014.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Robust, real-time pupil tracking in highly off-axis images

    Robust, real-time pupil tracking in highly off-axis images

    Lech Świrski, Andreas Bulling, Neil Dodgson

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 173-176, 2012.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project


Usable Security and Privacy

  1. PrivacEye: Privacy-Preserving Head-Mounted Eye Tracking Using Egocentric Scene Image and Eye Movement Features

    PrivacEye: Privacy-Preserving Head-Mounted Eye Tracking Using Egocentric Scene Image and Eye Movement Features

    Julian Steil, Marion Koelle, Wilko Heuten, Susanne Boll, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 1–10, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best video award

  2. Privacy-Aware Eye Tracking Using Differential Privacy

    Privacy-Aware Eye Tracking Using Differential Privacy

    Julian Steil, Inken Hagestedt, Michael Xuelin Huang, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA), pp. 1–9, 2019.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper award

  1. CueAuth: Comparing Touch, Mid-Air Gestures, and Gaze for Cue-based Authentication on Situated Displays

    CueAuth: Comparing Touch, Mid-Air Gestures, and Gaze for Cue-based Authentication on Situated Displays

    Mohamed Khamis, Ludwig Trotter, Ville Mäkelä, Emanuel Zezschwitz, Jens Le, Andreas Bulling, Florian Alt

    Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies (IMWUT), 2(7), pp. 174:1-174:22, 2018.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. GazeTouchPIN: Protecting Sensitive Data on Mobile Devices using Secure Multimodal Authentication

    GazeTouchPIN: Protecting Sensitive Data on Mobile Devices using Secure Multimodal Authentication

    Mohamed Khamis, Mariam Hassib, Emanuel Zezschwitz, Andreas Bulling, Florian Alt

    Proc. ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI), pp. 446-450, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. They are all after you: Investigating the Viability of a Threat Model that involves Multiple Shoulder Surfers

    They are all after you: Investigating the Viability of a Threat Model that involves Multiple Shoulder Surfers

    Mohamed Khamis, Linda Bandelow, Stina Schick, Dario Casadevall, Andreas Bulling, Florian Alt

    Proc. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM), pp. 1–5, 2017.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project Best paper honourable mention award

  1. SkullConduct: Biometric User Identification on Eyewear Computers Using Bone Conduction Through the Skull

    SkullConduct: Biometric User Identification on Eyewear Computers Using Bone Conduction Through the Skull

    Stefan Schneegass, Youssef Oualil, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 1379-1384, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  2. GazeTouchPass: Multimodal Authentication Using Gaze and Touch on Mobile Devices

    GazeTouchPass: Multimodal Authentication Using Gaze and Touch on Mobile Devices

    Mohamed Khamis, Florian Alt, Mariam Hassib, Emanuel Zezschwitz, Regina Hasholzner, Andreas Bulling

    Ext. Abstr. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 2156-2164, 2016.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Graphical Passwords in the Wild – Understanding How Users Choose Pictures and Passwords in Image-based Authentication Schemes

    Graphical Passwords in the Wild – Understanding How Users Choose Pictures and Passwords in Image-based Authentication Schemes

    Florian Alt, Stefan Schneegass, Alireza Sahami, Mariam Hassib, Andreas Bulling

    Proc. ACM International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI), pp. 316-322, 2015.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. SmudgeSafe: Geometric Image Transformations for Smudge-resistant User Authentication

    SmudgeSafe: Geometric Image Transformations for Smudge-resistant User Authentication

    Stefan Schneegass, Frank Steimle, Andreas Bulling, Florian Alt, Albrecht Schmidt

    Proc. ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), pp. 775-786, 2014.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project

  1. Increasing the Security of Gaze-Based Cued-Recall Graphical Passwords Using Saliency Masks

    Increasing the Security of Gaze-Based Cued-Recall Graphical Passwords Using Saliency Masks

    Andreas Bulling, Florian Alt, Albrecht Schmidt

    Proc. ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 3011-3020, 2012.

    Abstract Links BibTeX Project