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Int-HRL: Towards Intention-based Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

Anna Penzkofer, Simon Schaefer, Florian Strohm, Mihai Bâce, Stefan Leutenegger, Andreas Bulling

arxiv:2306.11483, pp. 1–7, 2023.


While deep reinforcement learning (RL) agents outperform humans on an increasing number of tasks, training them requires data equivalent to decades of human gameplay. Recent hierarchical RL methods have increased sample efficiency by incorporating information inherent to the structure of the decision problem but at the cost of having to discover or use human-annotated sub-goals that guide the learning process. We show that intentions of human players, i.e. the precursor of goal-oriented decisions, can be robustly predicted from eye gaze even for the long-horizon sparse rewards task of Montezuma’s Revenge – one of the most challenging RL tasks in the Atari2600 game suite. We propose Int-HRL: Hierarchical RL with intention-based sub-goals that are inferred from human eye gaze. Our novel sub-goal extraction pipeline is fully automatic and replaces the need for manual sub-goal annotation by human experts. Our evaluations show that replacing hand-crafted sub-goals with automatically extracted intentions leads to a HRL agent that is significantly more sample efficient than previous methods.



@techreport{penzkofer23_arxiv, author = {Penzkofer, Anna and Schaefer, Simon and Strohm, Florian and Bâce, Mihai and Leutenegger, Stefan and Bulling, Andreas}, title = {Int-HRL: Towards Intention-based Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning}, year = {2023}, pages = {1--7}, url = {} }